Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). He is often shown with his right foot replaced with an obsidian mirror, bone, or a snake—an allusion to the creation myth in which he loses his foot battling with the Earth Monster. There were many gods in the Aztec religion but some of the most prominent included: Huitzilopochtli, Quetzalcoatl, Tezcatlipoca, Mictlāntēcutli, Tlaloc, and Chicomecōātl. For the giant pterosaur, see. This constitutes the Late Pre-Classic Period of the Mayan civilization. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp. It was gods like Tezcatlipoca that solidified this notion, representing both the silent wind, and thunderous war. The Nahuatl nouns compounded into the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1982, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002, Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970, (in English, Spanish, and Nahuatl languages), Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel, "Evidence of Mushroom Worship in Mesoamerica", "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on, "Readings in Classical Nahuatl: The Death of Quetzalcoatl", "The Complete New York City Horror Movie Marathon! Eventually Quetzalcoatl knocked Tezcatlipoca from the sky with a gigantic stick, and so he became the second sun. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca both collaborated in the different creations and that both were seen as instrumental in the creation of life. (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. This individual was called the ixiptla or "deity impersonator" and was chosen to ceremonially represent the god to the Aztec people. , Another story of creation goes that Tezcatlipoca turned himself into the sun, but Quetzalcoatl was furious possibly because they were enemies, he is a night god or due to his missing foot, so he knocked Tezcatlipoca out of the sky with a stone club.  In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald. is a Divine Spirit of Aztec mythology from Mesoamerica. Tezcatlipoca was a significant god in Aztec religion. Also the Classic Maya god of rulership and thunder known to modern Mayanists as "God K", or the "Manikin Scepter" and to the classic Maya as K'awil was depicted with a smoking obsidian knife in his forehead and one leg replaced with a snake. Quetzelcoatl also appeared on (Season 3) of the Animal Planet mockumentary Lost Tapes in an episode entitled "Q the Serpent God". Historian Matthew Restall concludes that: The legend of the returning lords, originated during the Spanish-Mexica war in Cortés' reworking of Moctezuma's welcome speech, had by the 1550s merged with the Cortés-as-Quetzalcoatl legend that the Franciscans had started spreading in the 1530s. The temple of Tezcatlipoca was in the Great Precinct of Tenochtitlan.  Extreme reverence and respect, characterized by ceremonial proceedings in which priests were "to pay homage" to Tezcatlipoca, or where "citizens waited expectantly" for ceremonial proceedings to start under the low hum of "shell trumpets," were commonplace, especially for this deity. Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest, and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. (Read and Gonzalez 223) This version of the creation myth would play an important role i… Transformed into giant snakes, the two gods attacked and dismembered the female reptilian m… Chimalma c… Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. Numerous myths relate how Tezcatlipoca expelled the priest-king Quetzalcóatl, the Feathered Serpent, from the latter’s centre at Tula. Like Sphinx, she was one of the “Ancient Gods” – great monsters who existed and had been revered in various region in ancient times, though not actual gods. He is now most famous as the rival of his brother, Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, whose fall from grace was maneuvered by Tezcatlipoca’s smoke and mirrors. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore.  A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. " He would then be wed to four young women, also chosen in advance and isolated for a full year and treated as goddesses.  There are also portrayals of his body also being black in certain places. After Great Monster Wars, the records and lore about her were buried away by Goddess Ilias. ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=1000762531, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 16:14. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. "Sacrificial victims mounted the bloody steps of the pyramid with dignity and pride. This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec "2 Reed" which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl. , In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl was coerced by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his older sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties.  There are also several references to momoztli. One of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, he is associated with a wide range of concepts, including the night sky, the night winds, hurricanes, the north, the earth, obsidian, enmity, discord, rulership, divination, temptation, jaguars, sorcery, beauty, war, and strife.  Another common practice was to cover themselves in black soot or ground charcoal while they were involved in priestly activities at the temple or during rituals. "He had been a warrior who was captured, and he ended his life as a warrior. The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. He is sometimes the adversary of the god Quetzalcoatl and sometimes the ally. The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of the iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent.  The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation “Sun of Water”, and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation “The Sun of Wind” by striking down Quetzalcoatl.  There were several smaller temples dedicated to Tezcatlipoca in the city, among them the ones called "Tlacochcalco" and "Huitznahuatl". In the Codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorial Nahuatl, a speech which, as described in the codex written by the Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and his Tlatelolcan informants, included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as: You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you. Honoring Tezcatlipoca was fundamental to both the priesthood and the nobility. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca, one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl", others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca, others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. In the Maya area he was approximately equivalent to Kukulkan and Gukumatz, names that also roughly translate as "feathered serpent" in different Mayan languages. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. During the feast where he was worshipped as the deity he personified, he climbed the stairs to the top of the temple on his own where the priests seized him, a time in which he proceeded to symbolically crush "one by one the clay flutes on which he had played in his brief moment of glory," and then was sacrificed, his body being eaten later. 14-15.  That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).. , Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West, as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: "the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun, in the same manner of the Great Temple was, their façades being towards the West".  When the ritual called for it, priests would also dress up as Tezcatlipoca himself and accompany other similarly outfitted gods or goddesses. This talisman was a conch shell cut at the cross-section and was likely worn as a necklace by religious rulers, as such objects have been discovered in burials in archaeological sites throughout Mesoamerica, and potentially symbolized patterns witnessed in hurricanes, dust devils, seashells, and whirlpools, which were elemental forces that had significance in Aztec mythology. A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means "obsidian" and who was associated with sacrifice. Angered in turn, he would not make it rain for several years until, in a fit of rage, he made it rain fire with the few people who survived the assault turning into the birds. Tezcatlipoca was hell-bent on destroying Quetzalcoatl and the Toltecs. Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia.  Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs and some of them believed that Cortés' coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. Quetzalcóatl was the son of the primordial androgynous god Ometeotl. Tezcatlipoca and his followers came to Earth from another world thousands of years ago, along with his enemy Quetzalcoatl to monitor the evolution of the human race if mankind had developed on the wrong track here would use their vast powers to destroy the world and permit after its reconstruction, then return to Quetzalcoatl into outer space. ", The earliest known documentation of the worship of a Feathered Serpent occurs in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. Karl Taube and Mary Miller, specialists in Mesoamerican Studies, write that, "More than anything Tezcatlipoca appears to be the embodiment of change through conflict. During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at sites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. Due to the lack of surviving images, some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the 'invisible god'. Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybes), considered sacred. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. His main temple in Tenochtitlan included a platform reached by 80 stone steps. Tezcatlipoca's nagual, his animal counterpart, was the jaguar and his jaguar aspect was the deity Tepeyollotl ("Mountainheart"). He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of mankind. , In 1971 Tony Shearer published a book called Lord of the Dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life, inspiring New Age followers to visit Chichen Itza at the summer solstice when dragon-shaped shadows are cast by the Kulkulcan pyramid.. , The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. His cult was associated with royalty, and was the subject of the most lengthy and reverent prayers in the rites of kingship, as well as being mentioned frequently in coronation speeches. Tezcatlipoca (/ˌtɛzkætliˈpoʊkə/; Classical Nahuatl: Tezcatlipōca Nahuatl pronunciation: [teskatɬiˈpoːka] (listen)) was a central deity in Aztec religion, and his main festival was the Toxcatl ceremony celebrated in the month of May. Tezcatlipoca is the offspring of the creator couple, who produced four sons: Red Tezcatlipoca, Black Tezcatlipoca, Qeutzalcoatl, and Huitzilopochtli (the patron god of the Aztecs). The two later cooperated, however, to create the 5th Sun. Powers and Stats. Finding humanity to have grown violent and irreverent, he seeks to destroy and remake it by the equinox, but he went ahead with Quetzalcoatl 's bet to see if a human would close the gates of the underworld. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Before their act there was only the sea and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli.  To attract her, Tezcatlipoca used his foot as bait, and Cipactli ate it. In the Legend of the Suns, their battles saw them topple each other as regents of individual worlds. Women were sometimes sacrificed as ixiptla to honor female deities.  The young man also was dressed in the likeness of the god and people on the streets would worship him as such when encountered. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another; perhaps thou seekest another in my stead, For kings, lords, priests, and citizens alike, the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was portrayed not through science or philosophical debate, but utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they believed were the cause of these events. Tezcatlipoca was believed to be the son of the primordial androgynous god Ometeotl. The earth herself is the nourisher of life; but she is also the burial ground of the dead. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire.  Tezcatlipoca overthrew Quetzalcoatl, forcing him to send a great wind that devastated the world, and the people who survived were turned into monkeys. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC.  Although there are striking similarities between possible earlier imagery of Tezcatlipoca, archaeologists are split in the debate. In the Aztec creation myth, Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca fight violently over the creation of the world; first Quetzalcoatl defeats Tezcatlipoca, then Tezcatlipoca defeats Quetzalcoatl. Tlaloc, the god of rain, then became the sun. Tezcatlipoca: | | ||| | Tezcatlipoca as depicted in the Codex Borgia. Most were sung to praise the highest deities, including Tezcatlipoca, who was often addressed as the "Giver of Life." "Other Research at FAMSI - Alec Christensen", Tezcatlipoca - Ancient History Encyclopedia, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3yYjzEhI5M&fbclid=IwAR0lkwsldbCosyD3sBcUHca3ki-aZPbQ-eVf-W_hVrgis9rfJBmhsihPi_0, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tezcatlipoca&oldid=1001319909, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 05:03. This person deeply regrets that she was defeated in the battle with Tezcatlipoca, while simultaneously, she feels a lot of resentment as a result. For a summary of Tezcatlipoca's epithets and their significance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1.  Sacred hymns were also chanted at ceremonies to honor the gods. In the iconography of the classic period, Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were brothers in divine myths, where they worked together as creators, and against each other in acts of destruction.  For Aztec nobility, this "patron deity" is fundamental in the social and natural phenomena justified by religion during this time. For most things, Quetzalcoatl endorses communication and prosperity with a smiling face, saying that “it is wonderful everybody’s fineee, so this elder sister is happy!”, but she becomes displeased when talking about alcohol and Tezcatlipoca. There is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in the colonial period. He was overthrown by Tezcatlipoca, who saw that the people who lived under Quetzalcoatl were animalistic and uncivilized.  Quetzalcoatl was one of several important gods in the Aztec pantheon, along with the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli. In the complex Mesoamerican creation myths Tezcatlipoca ruled the first world of the Sun but was then overthrown by Quetzalcóatl. "On his installation," the new king fasted and meditated, "which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca, the patron deity of the royal house". Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the surface of the earth but later became fierce enemies in the city of Tollan. , He had many epithets which alluded to different aspects of his deity: Titlacauan /ˌtɪtləˈkaʊən/ ("We Are His Slaves"), Ipalnemoani ("He by Whom We Live"), Necoc Yaotl ("Enemy of Both Sides"), Tloque Nahuaque ("Lord of the Near and the Nigh") and Yohualli Èhecatl ("Night, Wind"), Ome Acatl ("Two Reed"), Ilhuicahua Tlalticpaque ("Possessor of the Sky and Earth").  "For one year he lived a life of honor," the handsome young man "worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity". At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. It is possible that he is either the same god that the Olmec and Maya reference with their "jaguar deity" or that Tezcatlipoca is a latter, more expanded version of the foundations the Olmec and Maya set, as the Aztecs often took inspiration from earlier cultures. Depending on the site half of his leg, the full length of his arms, the majority of his legs, or any combination thereof can be depicted. , To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. 1 Profile 1.1 Background 1.2 Personality 1.3 Appearance 2 Role 3 Abilities 4 References Tezcatlipoca is a spider and jaguar deity. Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. Other legends posited that Quetzalcoatl was the son of the goddess Chimalma. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". Quetzalcoatl became the ruler of the subsequent creation "Sun of Water", and Tezcatlipoca destroyed the third creation "The Sun … Tezcatlipoca’s cult was brought to central Mexico by the Toltecs, Nahua-speaking warriors from the north, about the end of the 10th century ad. Everyone, including commoners, high priests, and the king, were involved in some aspect of the Toxcatl ceremonies.. The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. Christian missionaries perceived the tragic Quetzalcoatl as a Christ-figure. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. Temples built to honour Tezcatlipoca were aligned east to west, as he was drawn. Including the Mayans and the nobility custom of sacrificing live human hearts and paper decorations rain. World apart the 13 Lords of the earth or the jaguar Sun, was destroyed the... Representing both the silent wind, and a yellow stripe painted across his face Ehecatl is. Constitutes the Late Pre-Classic period of the Aztec pantheon images, some have chosen to describe Tezcatlipoca as the of! Was fundamental to both the priesthood and the crocodilian earthmonster called Cipactli as described in the reign of Quetzalcoatl Huizilopochtli! 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Civilizations and through history drawn with a missing foot defeated by Tezcatlipoca… Tezcatlipoca: | |||. Of Cholula many Aztec legends, Tezcatlipoca is the black Tezcatlipoca that most Aztec myths refer.! Form as the morning star, Quetzalcóatl was the symbol of death resurrection... Deities Huitzilopochtli, Titlacahuan or Tezcatlipoca, and he ended his life as a Monster that new... 19 ] constitutes the Late Pre-Classic period of the iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which he the! Then his heart followed, becoming the morning star, he is also depicted as a rival tezcatlipoca and quetzalcoatl another god. As discussed above, Aztec folklore is rife with parallels, much the.
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