A History of the European Immigration to the USA The arrival of Christopher Columbusin the year 1492 marked the beginning of permanent settlement of European people in the New World. Throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century, European colonial administrations, charged with overseeing what would become Canada, did not consider settlement a priority. As of 2019, 72.1% or 1,553,078 were native Canary islanders with a further 8.2% born in mainland Spain. European immigration predominated through the 1950s even after becoming subject to severe restriction in the 1920s when Congress enacted quantitative caps based on national origins aiming to sharply lower overall immigration levels. [57][55], After the Age of Discovery, different ethnic European communities began to emigrate out of Europe with particular concentrations in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, Cuba, Brazil, Chile, and Puerto Rico where they came to constitute a European-descended majority population. And Israel has a small non-Jewish (often Evangelical Christian) American community in a primarily ethnoreligious Jewish country. Of these, 71% went to North America, 21% to Latin America (mainly Argentina and Brazil) and 7% to Australia. Uncertainty about prospects and the difficulties of travel limited migration to colonial-era North America to mostly western and northern European immigrants who differed in languages, religions, and regions of origin. [45], Between 1500 and 1700 only 100,000 Portuguese crossed the Atlantic to settle in Brazil. The East European Self-Exiled Class was eliminated following the fall of the Iron Curtain. It took Congress two decades to enact a literacy test, over several presidential vetoes, but the 1917 Immigration Act failed to significantly affect immigrant numbers. European immigration increased during the nineteenth century, drawn by opportunities in the expanding U.S. which offered comparatively greater political access, potential for upward socioeconomic mobility, and growing communities of co-ethnics which buffered the effects of transplantation. During the 1840s, the states of New York and Massachusetts implemented bans against poor immigrants and established agencies to return them home. [97] The 2018 official census had over 3 million people or 71.76% of the population were ethnic Europeans, with 64.1% choosing the New Zealand European option alone. Immigration Act of 1917 (Barred Zone Act), Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act), Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (The McCarran-Walter Act), Parole of Hungarians (1956-57), Cubans (1959-62), Chinese (1962), Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Refugee Protocol. The use of the term "diaspora" in reference to people of European national or ethnic origins is contested and debated-. Congress enacted exceptions to the national origins quotas imposed by the Immigration Act of 1924 in order to help World War II soldiers and veterans bring back foreign spouses and fiances they had met while serving in the military. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, at just 7 percent or 2 million people, mostly Italians, Portuguese, Germans and Spaniards; however, the influx of 4 million European immigrants between 1880 and 1920 significantly altered the racial composition of the country. Beginning in the 1880s, the arrival of immigrants from mostly southern and eastern European countries rapidly increased while the flow from northern and western Europe remained relatively constant (). 51% of immigrants were female. Across the centre of Europe the Celts move gradually west through Germany into France, northern Spain and Britain. 1. Under pressure from the White House, Department of State, and coalitions of ethnic and religious organizations, Congress legislated temporary refugee admissions, chiefly from Europe, with allocations of several hundred thousand immigrant visas. In this early version, Congress limited this important right to “free white persons.”. [citation needed] The huge number of immigrants to Argentina, which had a much smaller population, had a much greater impact on the country's ethnic composition. Canada’s colourful immigration history started from the very first settlers from France and England. Although European immigrants faced some hostility to their equal inclusion into U.S. democracy based on poverty, ideology, and religion, these barriers were relatively porous compared to persons categorically defined as racially unfit for U.S. citizenship. About 200,000 Spaniards settled in their American colonies prior to 1600, a small settlement compared to the 3 to 4 million Amerindians who lived in Spanish territory in the Americas. [94][95][96], Europeans historically (especially Anglo-Celtic) and presently are still the largest ethnic group in New Zealand. However, the number of White South African residents in their home country began gradually declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration.[103]. I n just two decades between 1891 and 1910, about 12.5 million people immigrated to the United States. In the 18th century, thanks to the gold rush, the capital of the province of Minas Gerais, the town of Villa Rica (today, Ouro Preto) became for a time one of the most populous cities in the New World. 1906: Immigration Act. The French arrived next, trading furs with the Montagnais along the St. Lawrence River and establishing trading outposts in Nova Scotia before moving southward to New Orleans and the Caribbean. European Immigration; Family and Chain Migration; Gender and Immigration; Immigration Laws and Enforcement; Immigration and International Relations; Immigration Stations; Migrations within the Americas; Refugees / Asylum; Standards; Additional Resources ; Glossary; Teach Immigration History . Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: harv error: no target: CITEREFLevyVasques2014 (, Boris Fautos – Fazer a América: a imigração em massa para a América Latina. World War II transformed priorities for immigration restriction by breaking the U.S.’s isolationism and launching its drive for international influence that intensified during the Cold War. Large-scale immigration into western Europe is more recent. [66], European Mexican - estimated by the government in 2010 as 47% of the population (56 million) using phenotypical traits (skin color) as the criteria. In the post- World War II period, immigration was largely the result of the refugee movement following that war and, during the 1950s and ’60s, the end of colonization across Asia and Africa. [106], Anglo-Indians, Europeans in South Asia who are descended from colonizers. Despite the large number of immigrants arriving, people born outside of the United States formed a relatively small number of the U.S. population: in 1910, foreigners accounted for 14.7 percent of the country's population or 13.5 million people. While the law provided quotas for all nations and ended racial restrictions on citizenship, it expanded immigration enforcement and retained offensive national origins quotas. History of European Immigration to America: The Spanish Immigrants. [48] The practice was sufficiently common that the Habeas Corpus Act 1679, in part, prevented imprisonments overseas; it also made provisions for those with existing transportation contracts and those "praying to be transported" in lieu of remaining in prison upon conviction. A large proportion —33.5%— chose to identify as ‘Australian’, however the census Bureau has stated that most of these are of old Anglo-Celtic colonial stock. They are predominantly descendants of Dutch, German, French Huguenots, English and other European settlers. Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/reference-populations-next-gen/, http://factsanddetails.com/russia/Minorities/sub9_3e/entry-5120.html, "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011", https://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/document/publication/Leading%20for%20Change_Blueprint2018_FINAL_Web.pdf, "Etnia, Condiciones de Vida y Discriminación", "Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011", "Demográficos: Censos de Población y Vivienda: Población Proyectada al 2016 - Base Censo 2011", https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html, "Census 2011 Census in brief, Report No. The quantitative discrimination still embedded in the Act’s national origins quotas provoked immediate protests. 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